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Present tense Spanish verbs

The present tense in Spanish is used to discuss habitual actions, actions in progress and actions that will occur in the near future or that have occurred in the very recent past and are still in progress.

Yo estudio portugués. I study Portuguese.

Te llamo mañana. I’ll call you tomorrow.

The subject pronouns for Spanish verbs are as follows.

singularplural
yo – Inosotros – we
tú – you (informal)vosotros – you (informal, Spain)
él – he ella – she usted ­– you (formal)ellos – they (masculine or mixed group) ellas – they (feminine) ustedes – you

 

Regular verbs – To conjugate present tense regular verbs, drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er or -ir) and add the following endings.

-ar

-er

-ir

 hablar – to speak comer – to eat vivir – to live
habl ohabl amoscom ocom emosviv oviv imos
habl ashabl áiscom escom éisviv esviv ís
habl ahabl ancom ecom enviv eviv en







Stem changing verbs – In addition to the endings seen above, the stems of these verbs also changes in the present tense when stressed. They DO NOT change in the nosotros and vosotros forms.

e > ie

e > i

o > ue

 querer – to want repetir – to repeat dormir – to sleep
quieroqueremosrepitorepetimosduermodormimos
quieresqueréisrepitesrepetísduermesdormís
quierequierenrepiterepitenduermeduermen

e > ie verbs – advertir (to warn), calentar (to warm), cerrar (to close), comenzar (to begin), convertir (to convert), defender (to defend), despertar (to awaken), divertir (to have fun), empezar (to begin/start), pensar (to think), perder (to lose), querer (to want), sentir (to feel)

e > i verbs – competir (to compete), conseguir (to get), despedir (to fire/say goodbye), elegir (to elect), reír (to laugh), servir (to serve), seguir (to follow/continue), sonreír (to smile), repetir (to repeat), vestir (to dress)

– o > ue verbs – almorzar (to eat lunch), contar (to count/tell), costar (to cost), dormir (to sleep) encontrar (to find), morir (to die), mover (to move), poder (to be able to), probar (to try/prove), recordar (to remember), soñar (to dream), volar (to fly)

– the verb jugar (to play) is the only verb that changes from u > ue : juego, juegas, juega, jugamos, jugáis, juegan

 

Irregular ‘yo’ form verbs – These verbs have unique ‘yo’ forms while the remaining conjugations follow the normal patterns.

“go” verbs
caer – to fallcaigo, caes, cae, caemos, caéis, caen
*decir – to say/telldigo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen
hacer – to do/makehago, haces, hace, hacemos, hacéis, hacen
poner – to putpongo, pones, pone, ponemos, ponéis, ponen
salir – to leave/go outsalgo, sales, sale, salimos, salís, salen
*tener – to havetengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tenéis, tienen
traer – to bringtraigo, traes, trae, traemos, traéis, traen
*venir – to comevengo, vienes, viene, venimos, venís, vienen

*these verbs are also stem changers

c > zc

conocer – to know/meetconozco, conoces, conoce, conocemos, conocéis, conocen
conducir (to drive/operate), conocer (to know/meet), merecer (to deserve), ofrecer (to offer), paracer (to seem), producir (to produce), reducir (to reduce), traducir (to translate)

others

caber – to fitquepo, cabes, cabe, cabemos, cabéis, caben
dar – to givedoy, das, da, damos, dais, dan
saber – to know factssé, sabes, sabe, sabemos, sabéis, saben
ver – to seeveo, vas, va, vamos, vais, van

 Irregular present tense verbs in Spanish  – the following verbs are irregular in the present tense and do not follow other patterns.

ser – to be

estar – to be

ir – to go

soysomosestoyestamosvoyvamos
eressoisestásestáisvasvais
essonestáestánvavan

Spelling changes – These Spanish verbs have spelling changes in order to maintain the same pronunciation in all conjugations

g > j

gu > g

dirigir – to direct/guide

seguir – to follow/continue

dirijodirigimossigoseguimos
dirigesdirigíssiguesseguís
dirigedirigensiguesiguen

g > j verbs – corregir (to correct), dirigir (to direct), eligir (to elect), fingir (to pretend)

gu > g verbs – conseguir (to get), distinguir (to distinguish), seguir (to follow/continue)

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